Metáforas. Bibliografía comentada

Recopilación: José Luis Pariente F.

Centro de Excelencia. Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas


Aaltio-Marjosola, I (1994): From a "grand story" to multiple narratives? Journal of Organizational Change Management, 7(5): 56-67.

Alvesson, Mats, & Yvonne Due Billing (1992): Gender and organization: Towards a differentiated understanding. Organization Studies, 13 (1): 73-103.

Adams, Parven, ed. (1972): Language in Thinking. Middlesex: Penguin Education.

Akin, G., & Schultheiss, E. (1990): Jazz bands and missionaries: OD through stories and metaphor. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 5(4): 12-18.

Aldrich, H. E. (1992): Incommensurable paradigms? Vital signs from three perspectives. In M. Reed & M. Hughes, eds. Rethinking organization: New directions in organization theory and analysis. London: Sage:16-45.

Alonso, Graciela y Asteggiante, Silvana (1999). Las metáforas en la interacción hombre-computador. Montevideo: Centro Regional de Nuevas Tecnologías de Información. Internet:

Alvesson, M. (1993): The play of metaphors. In J. Hassard & M. Parker, eds. Postmodernism and organizations. London: Sage: 114-131.

Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. (1974): Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Aristóteles (1946): Poética, traducción de J.D. García Bacca. México: UNAM.

Aristóteles (1971): Retórica, traducción de A. Tovar. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Políticos.

Ayer, Sir Alfred J, comp. (1959): El positivismo lógico. México: FCE.

Ayer, Sir Alfred J. (1982): Language, truth and logic. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Bacharach, Samuel B. (1989): Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 14: 496-515.

Bachelard, G. (1960): La formation de l'esprit scientifique: Contribution a une psychanalyse de la connaissance objective [La formación del espíritu científico : Contribución a un psicoanálisis del conocimiento objetivo]. Paris: Vrin.

Bailey, J. R., & Ford, C. M. (1994): Of methods and metaphors: Theater and self-exploration in the laboratory. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30: 381-396.

Barker, Joel Arthur (1993). Paradigms. The business of discovery the future. NY: HarperCollins. Publicado en 1992 con el título Future Edge, por William Morrow and Co.

Barley, S. R., & Kunda, G. (1992): Design and devotion: Surges of rational and normative ideologies of control in managerial discourse. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 363-399.

Barthes, Roland (1970): L’Aventure Semiologique. Paris: Éditions Du Seuil, 1986.

Battram, Arthur (1998): Navigating Complexity: The Essential Guide to Complexity in Business and Management. London: The Industrial Society. Existe traducción al español: Navegar por la complejidad. Guía básica sobre la teoría de la complejidad en la empresa y la gestión. México, DF: Granica, 2001. The best designed and best illustrated of all the complexity and management books. More than just another 'how-to' book , this is a 'how-to-think' book for practicing managers. Within this book lies the craft of management. Armed with the concepts herein, the manager of today is better prepared to face the complexities of tomorrow. Without such mastery, the risk is chaos and confusion." Michael Lissack, Editor-in-Chief, Emergence: A Journal of Complexity Issues In Organizations and Management

Bechtel, W. (1989): Filosofía de la mente: Una panorámica de la ciencia cognitiva. Madrid: Tecnos, 1991.

Bensimon, E. A. (1989): The meaning of "good presidential leadership": A frame analysis. Review of Higher Education, 12(1): 107-123.

Benzon, William L. and David G. Hays (1987): Metaphor, Recognition, and Neural Process. American Journal of Semiotics, 5: 59 - 79. Bill Benzon has placed online a copy of a dated but interesting article on metaphor and neural processes from 1987. This article is an excellent illustration of the then current debate between the interaction view and the cognitivist (Lakoff and Johnson) view of metaphor. The discussion of neural processing revolves around Pribram's suggestion that the mind stores representations holographically, and is also somewhat out of date.

Berger, Peter and Thomas Luckmann. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday.

Berlin, Brent & Paul KAY (1969): Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Bjorkegren, D. (1993): What can organization and management theory learn from art? In J. Hassard & M. Parker, eds.: Postmodernism and organizations. London: Sage: 101-113.

Black, M. (1962): Models and metaphors: Studies in language and philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Existe traducción al español: Modelos y metáforas, Madrid: Tecnos, 1966.

Black, Max. (1962): Metaphor. In Joseph Margolis, ed.: Philosophy Looks at the Arts. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Blumemberg, Hans (1960): Paradigmi per una metaforologia. Bolonia: Il Mulino, 1969.

Boje, David M. (1995): Stories of the storytelling organization: A postmodern analysis of Disney as "Tamara-Land". Academy of Management Journal, 38 (4): 997-1035.

Boje, David M., and Debra J. Summers (1994): Review of Imaginization: The art of creative management. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39 (4): 688-690.

Bolinger, Dwight. (1987): Metaphorical Aggression: Bluenoses and Coffin Nails. In J.E. Alatis and G.E. Tucker, eds.: Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics. Washington, D.C.; Georgetown University Press.

Bolman, L. G., & Deal, T. E. (1991): Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994. Existe traducción al español de la primera edición: Organización y liderazgo. El arte de la decision. Addison Weslwy Iberoamericana, 1995.This is the third release of a work that began in 1984 as Modern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations. It reappeared seven years later as Reforming Organizations and has since been translated into multiple languages. The four-frame model, with its view of organizations as factories, jungles, families, and temples, remains intact as the conceptual heart of the book.

Booth, Wayne (1978): Metaphor as Rhetoric: The Problem of Evaluation. In Seldom Sacks, ed.: On Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Borges, Jorge Luis (1989): Historia de la Eternidad. Buenos Aires: Emecé.

Bourgeois, V. Warren, and Pinder, Craig C. (1983): Contrasting philosophical perspectives in administrative science: A reply to Morgan. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 608-613.

Brink, T. L. (1993): Metaphor as data in the study of organizations. Journal of Management Inquiry, 2: 366-371.

Broussine, M., & Vince, R. (1996): Working with metaphor towards organisational change. In C. Oswick & D. Grant, eds.: Organisation development: Metaphorical explorations. London: Pitman: 57-72.

Brown, Roger, ed. (1972): Psycholinguistics. New York: The Free Press.

Brugman, Claudia (1990):What is the Invariance Hypothesis? Cognitive Linguistics, 1 (2): 257-266. Brugman raises five questions re Lakoff's IH article: 1) he appears to use image-schematic and topological in an equivalent sense--are they? 2) How much plasticity does an image schematic structure have? 3) When must source and target properties be preserved? When are properties created? 4) Are properties mapped transitively? 5) What mappings are preferred? She also focuses in on whether some concepts can be entirely structured by metaphorical mappings.

Brugman, Claudia (1988): The story of over: Polysemy, Semantics, and the Structure of the Lexicon. N.Y: Garland.

Burke, Kenneth (1969): A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Primera Edición, 1945. Prentice Hall.)

Burrell, Gibson, & Morgan, Gareth (1979): Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. Aldershot, England: Gower / London: Heinemann

Carston, Robyn y Uchida, Seiji, eds. (1997): Relevance Theory: Applications and Implications. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Cassirer, Ernst (1946): Language and Myth. (Traducción al inglés de Susanne Langer). Dover Publications (Harper & Brothers). Existe traducción al español: Mito y lenguaje. Buenos Aires: Nueva Visión, 1973.

Chernus, Ira (1985): Imagining the 'Unimaginable'. Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 1:79-85. Chernus' article is one of the core arguments of his book Dr. Strangegod: On the Symbolic Meaning of Nuclear Weapons. He points out that we do imagine nuclear war (or at least the experts do) and that the problem is not that nuclear holocaust is unimaginable but in the ways that it is being imagined. The failure to recognize the imaginative qualities in technostrategic discourse stems from the Objectivist oppression of imagination, myth and fantasy in the names of 'literal' truth and 'scientific' reality.

Chilton, Paul (1987): Metaphor, Euphemism and the Militarization of Language. Current Research on Peace and Violence, 10 (1): 7-17. Chilton has a wide knowledge of contemporary theories of metaphor in semantics from Lakoff and Johnson to Brown and Levinson, Schank and Abelson, and Schonberg. He spends considerable time working out an aesthetic formulation of the logic of militarization metaphors, and then discusses the role this sort of metaphoric reasoning plays in legitimizing nuclear policy. The writing is sometimes dense and theoretically daunting, but he begins to expose the systemacity of nuclear language.

Chilton, Paul, ed. (1985): Language and the Nuclear Arms Debate: Nukespeak Today. Dover, NH: Francis Pinter.

Cleary, C., & Packard, T. (1992): The use of metaphors in organizational assessment and change. Group and Organization Management, 17: 229-241.

Cobb, S. (19939: Empowerment and mediation: A narrative perspective. Negotiation Journal, 9(3): 245-261.

Cobb, S., & Rifkin, J. (1991): Practice and paradox: Deconstructing neutrality in mediation. Law and Social Inquiry, 16: 35-62.

Cohen, E., & Ben-Ari, E. (1993): Hard choices: A sociological perspective on value incommen surability. Human Studies, 16: 267-297.

Cohn, Carol. (1987): Sex and Death in the Rational World of the Defense Intellectuals. Signs, Winter: 687-718. Quite simply the finest article I have ever read. Cohn gently decimates the rational veneer of the defense intellectual, exposing the roots of the cognitive dissonance between being a caring family member and generally decent human being one one hand and a cold, calculating planner of hypothetical nuclear destruction on the other. She has a brilliant analysis of what learning to speak the language of technostrategic discourse does: it provides a Nietzchean 'cognitive mastery' over the catastropic potentialities of nuclear weaponry and war. Also includes observations on the displacement of human survivability from the center of the discourse and the replacement concept of weapons system survivablity.

Coleman, Linda & Paul Kay (1981): Prototype semantics: the english verb 'lie'. Language, 57:1.

Connolly, T. (1988): Hedge-clipping, tree-felling and the management of ambiguity: The need for new images of decision-making. In L. R. Pondy, R. J. Boland, Jr., & H. Thomas, eds.: Managing ambiguity and change. Chichester, England: Wiley: 37-50.

Cox, Gary (1986). The Ways of Peace. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.

Czyzewski, M. (1994): Reflexivity in actors versus reflexivity of accounts. Theory, Culture & Society, ll:161-168.

Daft, FL. L., & Weick, K. E. (1984): Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Academy of Management Review, 9: 284-295.

David, Carol and Graham, Margaret Baker (Jan 1997). Conflicting values: Team management portrayed in epic metaphors. Journal of Business & Technical Communications, 11 (1): 24-48.

Davidson, Donald (1984): De la verdad y de la interpretación. Barcelona: Gedisa, 1995.

Davidson, Donald (1979): What Metaphors Mean. In Sheldon Sacks, ed.: On Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

DeCock, Christian (1994): Review of Imaginization: The art of creative management. Journal of Management Studies, 31 (2): 283-285.

Dennett, Daniel y Hofstadter, Douglas, eds. (1981): El ojo de la mente, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, 1983.

Derrida, Jacques (1967): De la gramatología. México: Siglo XXI, 1984.

Dirven, René y Radden, Günter (1996): Cognitive English Grammar. Internet: http://www.uoregon/metaphor.

Dobuzinskis. L. (1992): Modernist and postmodernist metaphors of the policy process: Control and stability versus chaos and reflexive understanding. Policy Sciences, 25: 355-380.

Donaldson, L. (1985): In defence of organization theory: A reply to the critics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Doving, E. (1994): Using anthropomorphistic metaphors: Organizational action, knowledge, and learning. Paper presented at the Conference on Metaphors in Organisational Theory and Behaviour, King's College, University of London.

Duck, J. D. (1993): Managing change: The art of balancing. Harvard Business Review, 71(6): 109-118.

Dyson, Freeman (1984): Weapons and Hope. New York: Harper and Row. Dyson has two superb moves. In his stunning opening chapters, he observes that he lives in two worlds: at work, in the world of the warriors; at home and church, in the world of victims. If there is to be an effective debate on nuclear issues there must evolve a common language. With his unique vantage point as respected nuclear physicist and peace activist, he brings considerable conceptual acuity to the debate. Second, he has a remarkable observation about the ways in which group behavior makes possible ethical atrocities which no one member of the group would engage in alone. The individual does not go to war alone--war is a group activity. However, he does quite push this point as far as I'd like.

Eco, Umberto (1984): Semiótica y Filosofía del Lenguaje. Barcelona: Lumen, 1990.

Elgin, C. Z., & Scheffler, I. (1987): Mainsprings of metaphor. Journal of Philosophy, 84: 331-335.

Evered, R., & Louis, M. R. (1991): Alternative perspectives in the organizational sciences: “inquiry from the inside” and “inquiry from the outside”. In N. Smith & P. Dainty, eds.: The management researcher handbook. London: Routledge: 7-22.

Fauconnier, Gilles (1985): Mental Spaces. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Fillmore, Charles (1982)b: Frame semantics. Linguistics in the Morning Calm. Selected Papers from SICOL-1981; The Linguistic Society of Korea, ed. Seoul: Hanshin Publishing Co.

Fillmore, Charles. (1982)a: Towards a descriptive framework for spacial deixis. In Jarvella & Klein, eds.: Speech, Place, and Action. London: John Wiley.

Ford, J. D., & Ford, L. W. (1995): The role of conversations in producing intentional change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20: 541-570.

Ford, J. D., & Ford, L. W. (1994): Logics of identity, contradiction, and attraction in change. Academy of Management Review, 19: 756-785.

Foucault, Michel (1978): The History of Human Sexuality, Volume 1. Hurley, Robert, trans. New York: Random House. The core of Foucault's retelling of European history is in his analysis of power from pages 94-98. To summarize: 1) power is not a thing acquired, seized or shared but exercised from innumerable points; 2) power is not exterior to other relationships (economic, knowledge, sexual), but is immanent in them; 3) power comes from below, and is not something possessed by the ruler and lacking in the ruled--there is no binary and all encommpassing opposition between rulers and ruled; 4) while power is never exercised without aims or objectives, it does not necessarily result from individual choice or decision--while its logic may be perfectly clear and its aims decipherable, it is often the case that no one is there to have invented them, and few who can be said to have even formulated them; 5) where there is power there is resistance, but there is no locus of great Refusal, no one soul of revolt which can be said to be the source of all rebellions-- resistance, like power, is local in origin and is transformed and expressed thorough associations, institutions and groups. / He intends this radical redefinition as an escape from the system of the Law and Sovereign of political thought. The question regarding sex is not: What law presided over sexual behavior and what was said about it? but "In a specific type of discourse on sex, in a specific form of extortion of truth, appearing historically and in specific places (around the child's body, apropos of women's sex, in connection with practices restricting births, and so on), what were the most immediate, the most local power relations at work?" (p.97) It is only with power conceived in terms of multiple force relations that sexuality may be understood.

Frege, Gottlob (1892): Estudios sobre semántica. Barcelona: Ariel, 1973.

Frost, P. J., Moore, L. F., Louis, M. R., Lundberg, C. C., & Martin, J., eds. (1991): Reframing organizational culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Galtung, Johan (1987): Language and War: Is there a Connection? Current Research on Peace and Violence, 10 (1): 2-6. Despite its appetizing title, the lead-off article to the special issue on language and war is rather sparse. Galtung does have interesting chart titles "langauages as carriers of cosmology" comparing European, Chinese and Japanese conceptions of space, time, knowledge, and person-nature, person-person, person-transpersonal relationships. There may be more information available on this as he is summarizing a previous article.

García Yebra, Valentín (1974): Poética de Aristóteles. Madrid: Gredos.

Gardner, Howard (1987): La nueva ciencia de la mente: Historia de la revolución cognitiva. Barcelona: Paidós, 1988.

Garfinkel, H. (1967): Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Garud, R., & Kotha, S. (1994): Using the brain as a metaphor to model flexible production systems. Academy of Management Review. 19: 671-698.

Geis, Michael (1987): The Politics of Language. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Gentner, Dedre & Stevens, Albert L., eds. (1983): Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. An anthology with some very revealing case studies, including Gentner & Gentner on structure mapping in mental models of electricity and Hutchins on measurement and the bird's eye-view of western navigation v. the micronesian analogical method.

Gentner, Dedre and Gentner, Donald (1983): Flowing Waters or Teeming Crowds: Mental Models of Electricity. In Gentner, Dedre & Stevens, Albert L., eds. Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates: 99-130. This is the key article which lays out the theory of structure mapping in analogy which later is picked up and transformed into conceptual mappings of metaphors in Lakoff and Johnson's work.

Gentner, Dedre (1982): Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?. In Miall, David S., ed. Metaphor: Problems and Perspectives. Sussex, England: The Harvester Press: 106- 132. In this article Gentner argues that scientific analogies and metaphors both rest on strucutre mappings between domains of knowledge and hence are more alike than different. She distinguishes the two however on the bases of specificity, clarity, richness, systemacity/abstractness, scope and validity. The most important feature of a scientific metaphor is that the base domain be well understood and fully specified. To be clear scientific analogies tend have isomorphic mappings, while expressive metaphors have one to many mappings. Richness has to do with how many predicate mappings are made, and systemacity is interrelatedness of the mapped predicates-- how tightly constrained by the analogy the mapped predicates are. A scientific analogy should apply to a number of cases to be useful (scope) and it should lead to a degree of correct inferences (validity). Her examples (Galileo's earth/ship falling stone analogy, Eliot's voices as dried grass in The Hollow Men and Shakespeare's "It is the east and Juliet is the sun!" metaphor) are excellent for sorting out what she means by these criteria. A good, uncomplicated but deep article.

Gentner, Dedre (1980): Studies of metaphor and complex analogies: a structure-mapping theory. Ponencia presentada ante la Asociación Norteamericana de Psicología. Symposium on Metaphor as Process. Montreal.

Gergen, Kenneth J. (1992): Organization theory in the postmodern era. In M. Reed & M. Hughes, eds.: Rethinking organization, London: Sage: 207-226.

Gergen, Kenneth J., & Gergen, M. M. (1991): Toward reflexive methodologies. In F. Steier, ed.: Research and reflexivity. London: Sage: 76-95.

Ghoshal, S., & Mintzberg, H. (1994): Diversification and diversifact. California Management Review, 37(1): 8-27.

Giddens. A. (1990): The consequences of modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Giddens, A. (1979): Central problems in social theory: Action, structure and contradiction in social analysis. London: Macmillan.

Gioia, D. A., & Pitre, E. (1990): Multiparadigm perspectives on theory building. Academy of Management Review, 15: 584-602.

Gioia, D. A., Thomas, J. B., Clark, S. M., & Chittipeddi, K. (1994): Symbolism and strategic change in academia: The dynamics of sensemaking and influence. Organization Science, 5: 363-383.

González, Álvaro (1995): La metáfora EL AMOR ES FUEGO en español. Ms. Departamento de Español. Universidad de Concepción, Chile.

Goodman, Nelson (1978): Metaphor as Moonlighting. In Sacks, S., ed.: On Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Gozzi, Raymond Jr. (Summer 1999). The oxymetaphorpardoxical superstar. Et Cetera, 56 (2): 211-216.

Grant, D., & Oswick, C., eds. (1996): Metaphor and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. A total of thirteen articles by a variety of authors on various aspects of metaphors in organizational theory. The book is divided into four parts: (l) Metaphors of organization: Scope and application; (2) Metaphors in organizing: Language and discourse; (3) Metaphors in organizational settings: Impact and outcomes; (4) Metaphor and organizations: Issues and directions.

Gree, Carolyn and Ruhleder, Karen (1995). Globalization, borderless worlds, and the Tower of Babel: Metaphors gone awry. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 8 (4): 55-68.

Grice, H.P. (1975): Logic and conversation. In Cole, P. & J.L.Morgan, eds.: Syntax and Semantics, 3. Nueva York: Speech Acts. Existe traducción al español: Lógica y conversación, en Valdés Villanueva, Luis, ed. (1991): La búsqueda del significado. Madrid: Tecnos.

Grube, G.M.A. (1986): Aristotle: On Poetry and Style. N.Y: Macmillan Publishing Company. (Primera edición, 1958. The Bobbs-Merrill Company.)

Grupo μ (1982): Retórica general. Barcelona: Paidós, 1987.

Guiraud, Pierre (1960): La Estilística. Buenos Aires: Nova, 1967.

Gumpel, Lisolette (1984): Metaphor Re-Examined. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Gumpel's work is interesting in that it tries to blend a phenomenological linguistics (qua Ingarden & Heidegger) with a Piercian semiotic analysis, but her work is made nearly utterly inaccessible due to her obtuse and polemical writing style. Nonetheless, the preface, introduction and especially the bibliography make interesting reading.

Habermas, J. (1971): Knowledge and human interests. Boston: Beacon Press.

Hammersley, Martin (Oct 1999). Not bricolage but boatbuilding: Exploring two metaphors for thinking about ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 28 (5): 574-585.

Handy, Charles (2001): The elephant and the flea. Harvard Business School.
Charles Handy is always a delight to read, and The Elephant and the Flea--his autobiography-laced analysis of business over the past two decades--is no exception. In his 13th book, the
United Kingdom's preeminent sage on commercial and industrial matters looks within and at education, marriage, religion, and society in order to assess the changing nature of employment. His literate and knowledgeable tale begins in 1981, when Handy decided to exchange a safe but stifling life with a corporation (the "elephant" of his title) for the riskier but potentially more rewarding existence of an independent (or "flea"). Mixing diverse experiences with cogent observations on the evolving workplace, he sets the scene for plausible projections about where we might yet be headed. "Just as the signs were there 20 years ago for those who wished to see them, so I believe we can glimpse the shape of the new capitalist world even if it may take another 20 years to develop," he writes. "We may not like what is coming but we would be foolish to think that we can plan our lives, or our children's lives, without giving some thought to the shape of the stage on which we and they will be strutting." Intensely personal yet remarkably universal, the book is another provocative, illuminating, and enjoyable work from the oil executive turned bestselling author. --Howard Rothman

Handy, Charles (1994): The age of paradox. Boston: Harvard Business School. (Publicado en Inglaterra con el título: The Empty Raincoat, por The Ramdom House). Handy is a respected management expert and author of the frequently cited Age of Unreason (1989). In that book, he used George Bernard Shaw's observation that the reasonable man adapts himself to the world, but the unreasonable one attempts to adapt the world to himself. Handy argued the need to break out of traditional ways of thinking in order to adapt to constant change and use change to advantage. Now, five years later, many of the changes Handy foresaw have taken place but with unanticipated, paradoxical consequences. Using well-chosen anecdotes and keen observations, he identifies the paradoxical consequences of intelligence, work, productivity, time, riches, organizations, aging, the individual, and justice and suggests how to work with them. David Rouse

Handy, Charles (1989): The age of unreason. London: Business Book Ltd. In an era when change is constant, random, and as Charles Handy calls it, discontinuous, it is necessary to break out of old ways of thinking in order to use change to our advantage. We are entering the Age of Unreason, when the only prediction that will hold true is that no prediction will hold true. It is time for bold imaginings, for thinking the unlikely, and doing the unreasonable. In this fascinating book, Handy shows how dramatic changes are transforming business, education, and the nature of work. We can see them in astounding new developments in technology, in the shift in demand from manual to cerebral skills, and in the virtual disappearance of lifelong, full-time jobs. Handy maintains that discontinuous change requires discontinuous, upside-down thinking. We need new kinds of organizations, new approaches to work, new types of schools, and new ideas about the nature of our society. Named one of the ten best business books of 1990 by Business Week.

Handy, Charles (1978): Gods of Management: How they work and why they will fail. Souvenir Press Ltd. Existe traduccción al español: Los dioses de la administración. México, DF: Limusa, 1983. Because British management guru Handy's works, such as The Age of Unreason (1990) and The Age of Paradox (1994), are becoming more frequently requested here in the U.S., Oxford University Press has decided to release a first American edition of a book Handy wrote in 1978, which has already been translated into many languages and updated and revised twice. Handy offers a unique approach to understanding different management styles. Starting with management theorist Roger Harrison's four types of organizations, Handy identifies four Greek gods (Apollo, Zeus, Athena, and Dionysus) that typify the organizational cultures of the four. He then matches godly attributes to each, in the hope that his analogy will spark insight and serve as a diagnostic tool for resolving conflicts that result from clashing styles. Handy says this is the book of which he is most proud, and that affirmation should arouse curiosity. . David Rouse.

Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1994): Competing for the future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Harmon, Joseph E.(1994): The Uses of Metaphor in Citation Classics from the Scientific Literature. Technical Communication Quarterly, 3: 179-194. Abstract reads: "To gain a better sense of the metaphorical nature of the scientific research paper, the author reviewed 89 journal articles taken from the top 400 most-cited documents in the Science Citation Index database for the period 1945-1988. Metaphorical constructions were found in a variety of forms: conceptual models, experimental designs, technical analogies, standard technical names, conventional figurative expressions, and even original figurative language normally associated with more-literary writing. Examples are given for each mode of metaphor."

Hassard, J., & Parker, M., eds. (1993): Postmodernism and organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Explores the implications of postmodernist/postructuralist thinking for organizations and organizational analysis. Essays include a celebration of the "postmodernist challenge" to traditional organization theory, while others provide a critique of the movement. The introduction outlines the concepts underpinning a postmodern organizational analysis, contrasting modern and postmodern forms of explanation and addressing the distinctions between postmodernity and postmodernism. Includes arguments that postmodernism fails adequately to address the realities of power, control, and change in a globalizing world.

Hausman, Carl R. (1989). Metaphor and Art: Interactionism and Refence in the Verbal and Nonverbal Arts. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Hausman's book treats much of the recent history of analytic thought about metaphor from Bearsley and Black through Searle and Boyd. He takes as his starting points the questions of how creativity can be irreducible, unpredictible and not deducible, and how metaphors can create their own referents. Very thorough but technical writing.

Hempel, Carl (1966): Filosofía de la ciencia natural. Madrid: Alianza, 1976.

Hesse, Mary (1964): Models and Analogies in Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hibbitts, Bernard J. (1994): Making Sense of Metaphors: Visuality, Aurality, and the Reconfiguration of American Legal Discourse, 16 Cardozo Law Review: 229-356. In brief, the paper argues (in an at least vaguely-Lakoffian manner) that the language of American law is moving from its traditionally-strong bias in favor of visually-evocative metaphors towards a certain preference for aurally-evocative metaphors. It goes on to suggest a number of cultural, sociological and phenomenological reasons for this shift. (annotation by Hibbits).

Hickey, D. (1999): Figures of thought for college writers. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. Based on the idea that metaphor is basic to our cognitive processes and is a reliable way of structuring and understanding concepts, this book aims, first, to encourage greater language awareness, and second, to encourage students to consider some of our culture's dominant metaphors and the ways in which they both reflect and shape the concepts they describe. After an extensive introduction to metaphor, thematic chapters explore several common conceptual metaphors.

Hobbes, Thomas. (1651): Leviathan. New York: Collier ed., 1962.

Holland, Dorothy & Naomi Quinn, eds. (1987): Cultural Models in Language and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Holland, R. (1990): The paradigm plague: Prevention, cure, and inoculation. Human Relations, 43: 23-48.

Hook, Glenn D. (1985): Making Nuclear Weapons Easier to Live With: The political Role of Languagein Nuclearization. In Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 1, 67-77. An excellent piece regarding the effects of the 'nuclearization' of language. Well researched data from the mouths of strategists. Includes observations on weapons life cycle, male narcissism, Humanizing damage, and strategic terminology. Hook rejects the view of metaphor as mere common euphemisms, investigating instead "how they contribute to the maintenence of the nuclear political system....In this case, the danger of nuclear war may be obfuscated instead of highlighted, precluded from thought instead of thought about, and accepted as normal instead of an aberration." (p.68)

Howe, Nicholas (1987): Metaphor in Contemporary American Political Discourse. In Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 87-104.

Hutchins, Edwin (1983): Understanding Micronesian Navigation. In Gentner, Dedre & Stevens, Albert L., eds.: Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates: 191-226. This wonderful article tackles some important questions about the bias implicit in western culture and rationality toward measurement. The article focuses on conceptual differences between Micronesian navigation and western navigation, pointing out how the western bias toward measurement and a bird's eye view kept anthropologists from understanding the Micronesian's account of thier navigational techniques. Hutchins also has a book in the Harvard Press CogSci series (Culture and Inference: A Trobriand Case Study).

Inns, D. E., & Jones, P. J. (1996): Metaphor in organization theory: Following in the footsteps of the poet? In D. Grant & C. Oswick, eds.: Metaphor and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 111-126. Compares the use of metaphor in poetry with its use within the field of organization theory. The comparison reveals both similarities and differences in the use of metaphor across the two fields. This leads to consideration of the different aims of poetry and organization theory and how these translate into different demands placed on metaphors. These are examined using examples from both domains.

Jackson, N., & Carter, P. (1993): Paradigm wars: A response to Hugh Willmott. Organization Studies, 14: 721-725.

Jackson, N., & Carter, P. (1991): In defense of paradigm incommensurability. Organization Studies, 12: 109-127.

Jackson, N., & Willmott, H. (1987): Beyond epistemology and reflective conversation: Towards human relations. Human Relations, 40: 361-380.

Jacques, R. (1992): Critique and theory building: Producing knowledge “from the kitchen”. Academy of Management Review, 17: 582-606.

Jakobson, Roman (1963): Ensayos de lingüística general. México: Siglo XXI, 1976.

Jeffcutt, P. (1993): From interpretation to representation. In J. Hassard & M. Parker, eds.: Postmodernism and organizations. London: Sage: 25-48.

Jimenez, Jacques y Johnson, Timothy L. (1998). Metaphors at work: The unseen influencers. Rowayton, CT: The Helix Press. A collection of the figures of speech most widely used in the English-speaking world by people doing business. Each expression is defined, its business use exemplified, and its origin identified. This is a book that is very easy to use. Metaphors at Work is a great way for native speakers to liven up their English by getting away from jargon and back toward vivid, common sense talk and writing. It's also a great way for non-native speakers to break through the mysteries of ordinary business English - to get rid of the feeling that can be summarized by sighing quietly and muttering, "What are these people talking about?" The business expressions in Metaphors at Work are arranged in the six groups they belong to, listed here with a couple of examples of each family: from gambling - cash in your chips; champing at the bit, from warfare - flash in the pan; hit the decks, from sports - hand off; on the ropes, from farming - break new ground; hedge against inflation, from arts and crafts - hog the spotlight; take a cut at, from engineering - build momentum; business cycle Even this short list suggests the double richness of the collection: - Metaphors at Work is the key to understanding the language people really use. That vocabulary is largely made up of figurative expressions drawn from these six sources. - Metaphors at Work is also a key to understanding the thoughts behind the vocabulary. Those thoughts are made up of values, concerns, biases, and preferences that shape the way business people make decisions. Business people who are like gamblers talk differently from business people who are like engineers - and they think differently, too. If you are a native speaker of English, this collection will wake you up to the power of your own language to say things colorfully as well as accurately. And it will help you tune in precisely to what other people really mean when they use these expressions. If you are a non-native speaker who uses English in business as a second or third language, Metaphors at Work will free you from guessing at what other people mean when they talk and write. Guessing isn't good enough. There's a better way, and it is called Metaphors at Work.

Johnson, Mark. (1992): Philosophical Implications of Cognitive Semantics. Cognitive Linguistics, 3, (4): 345-366.

Johnson, Mark (1987): The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. Chicago y Londres: The University of Chicago Press.

Johnson, Mark (1987): Death is the Mother of Beauty: Mind, Metaphor, Criticism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983): Mental Models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. Johnson-Laird is a British cognitive psychologist (at the University of Sussex in 83) whose writing is sharper than a tack. This book is both incisive and insightful and is a must read to do work on the cognitive science of logic and how we learn to handle propositional inferences. He outlines a number of experiments he and colleagues have performed which argue against a view of the mind which reduces all mental opeerations to a propositional logic and also against image-based accountings for arguments about the formation of propositional logic, including work that has been done exploring wheter propositions arise from analogies with Euler circles and Venn diagrams. Instead he claims that propostional reasoning rests on knowledge representations he calls mental models which are spatial tableaus. A good strong critic of Fodor and other nativist- rationalists who can deal with them in terms of their own theories.

Keizer, J. A., & Post, G. J. J. (1996): The metaphoric gap as a catalyst of change. In C. Oswick & D. Grant, eds.: Organisation development: Metaphorical explorations. London: Pitman: 90-105

Kelling, George W. (1989): Language: Mirror, Tool, and Weapon. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Kendall, J. E., & Kendall, K. E. (1993): Metaphors and methodologies: Living beyond the systems machine. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 17 (2):149-171. Metaphors are the cognitive lenses individuals use to make sense of all situations. Building on work about metaphors in organizational life, an analysis examines the language of information systems (IS) users in 16 different organizations. The results confirm the existence of 6 main metaphors (journey, war, game, organism, society, and machine) and add 3 metaphors that also emerged from the language of IS users (family, zoo, and jungle). Dramatistic analysis is used to reveal that 7 of these principal metaphors are found in commonly used systems development methodologies. Analysts who are aware of the existence of these metaphors will begin to see the systems development process in an entirely new light. In using this approach, analysts should 1. lead the systems development process by selecting a methodology to match user metaphors, 2. see rather than suppress the paradoxical richness of metaphors, 3. not limit the number of metaphors because it limits the usefulness of the approach, and 4. be adequately trained in a variety of systems development methodologies.

Koch, S., & Deetz, S. (1981): Metaphor analysis of social reality in organizations. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 9:1-15.

Kofman, Fredy (2001): Metamanagement. La nueva con-ciencia de los negocios. México, DF: Granica. 3 tomos.

Korzybdski, Alfred (1948): Selections from Science and Sanity. Lakeville, CT: International Non-Aristotlean Library Publishing Co.

Kovecses, Zoltan (1989): Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer-Verlag. Kovecses' work is an extension of case study #2 in Lakoff's WFDT. He works with the emotions for anger, fear, pride, respect, and romatic love. He begins to tackle some fairly important issues about personhood via the container, object and physical force metaphors in chapters 9 and 10.

Krippendorff (1991): Reconstructing (some) communication research methods. In F. Steier, ed.: Research and refiexivity. London: Sage: 115-142.

Kuhn, Thomas (1975), La revolución copernicana, Barcelona: Ariel, 1978.

Kuhn, T. (1970):The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Obligatory for graduate students in almost any field and cited in countless academic papers, this book-length essay introduced "paradigm" into common parlance, as in paradigm shift. Since Kuhn's essay, real and imagined paradigm shifts seem to have become more common. What Kuhn did (apart from popularizing a rather specialized word) was to convince us that there is a consistent pattern in the way that one scientific idea and belief system gives way to the next. Kuhn observed that what he called "normal science" is almost entirely a "mopping-up" operation that assumes the prevalent set of beliefs in that science and is putting the finishing touches on the system. Invariably, anomalies occur, events that don't fit. Efforts are made to explain it. New theories are espoused, sometimes revolutionary in scope. The majority oppose it. Ultimately, the new ideas (or those that seem to work) prevail and a new paradigm can be said to exist, and so forth. While the process of thesis-antithesis-synthesis in historical change is not a new idea (see Hegel), Kuhn's fascinating essay suggests that the image of scientists as relentless searchers for truth is not quite the way it works. Without disputing it, we wonder whether Kuhn's own thesis of how scientific beliefs evolve hasn't itself created a new paradigm about information technology in which paradigm shifts are anticipated and expected.

Lakoff, George (1996). Moral Politics: What Conservatives know that Liberals Don’t. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, George (1994): The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In A. Ortony, ed.: Metaphor and Thought, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, George (1991): Metaphor and War: the Metaphor System used to justify war in the Gulf. Internet: http://www.uoregon/metaphor.

Lakoff, George (1990): The Invariance Hypothesis: Is abstract reason based on image-schemas?" Cognitive Linguistics, 1, (1): 39-74.

Lakoff, George (1987): Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, George (1989): Some empirical results about the nature of concepts. Mind & Language, 4 (1 and 2).

Lakoff, George (1986)a: Cogntitive Semantics. Berkeley Cognitive Science Report No. 36.

Lakoff, George (1986)b: Two metaphorical issues: (1) the meaning of 'literal', (2) a figure of thought. Berkeley Cognitive Science Report No.38.

Lakoff, George. (1982): Categories and Cognitive Models. Berkeley Cognitive Science Report No.2.

Lakoff, George and Turner, Mark. (1989): More than Cool Reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. This is an excellent introductory work for use in English classes. The most interesting analyses are at the end of the book when the authors discuss proverbs. How is that an expression which seems to have no explicit connection with the present situation can apply to it? The answer lies in the image-schematic structure of the proverb and the present situation. The GENERAL IS SPECIFIC metaphor then extends the proverbial situation to stand for the general kind of situation we are presently experiencing (ie, between a rock and a hard place). The other development is the analysis of the GREAT CHAIN metaphor where humans are seen as the highest order things which have all the attributes of lower order thinggs such as animals, plants, complex objects, and natural physical things.

Lakoff, George, Jane Espenson, Adele Goldberg (1989): Master Metaphor List. Compilación. Universidad de California, Berkeley.

Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark (1987): The metaphorical logic of rape. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 2: 73-79.

Lakoff, George y Johnson, Mark (1981): La estructura metafórica del sistema conceptual humano. En D. Norman, comp: Perspectivas de la ciencia cognitiva. Barcelona: Paidós, 1987.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980): Metaphors we live by. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Existe traducción al español: Metáforas de la vida cotidiana, Madrid: Cátedra, 1986. In this book written for the layman, linguist George Lakoff and philosopher Mark Johnson cogently argue that metaphor is integral, not peripheral to language and understanding. Furthermore, "metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature." (p. 3) / The authors adopt a broad definition of metaphor, examine common phrases for metaphorical interpretation, and offer a classification system of metaphor. For example, orientational metaphors are found in our ordinary language and are part of the spatial organization of our lives. When one says, "He dropped dead" or "He's at the peak of health," one is using the orientational metaphor that we live by: "Health and life are up; sickness and death are down." This orientation is not arbitrary; the authors point out that one lies down when one is ill. / Other types of metaphors categorized by the authors are structural and ontological (e.g., making a non-entity into an entity: "We need to combat inflation," or setting a boundary on a non-entity: "He's coming out of the coma"). The authors also differentiate metaphor from other figures of speech, such as metonymy, which relies more completely on substitution: "The ham sandwich wants his check." / The second half of the book address issues more philosophical in nature, such as theories of truth and how we understand the world, including the "myths" of "objectivism," "subjectivism," and "experientialism." These theories are reviewed with metaphor in mind. For example, objectivism relies on the separation of man from the environment and the subsequent mastery over the environment. Hence objectivism is rife with metaphors which confirm such ideas as "knowledge is power." / The authors conclude by stating that metaphors provide "the only ways to perceive and experience much of the world. Metaphor is as much a part of our functioning as our sense of touch, and as precious."

Langacker, Ronald (1987): Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Theoretical Prerequisites. Vol. 1. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Langacker, Ronald (1987): The Cognitive Perspective. CRL Newsletter, 1, (3).

Laroche, H. (1995): From decision to action in organizations: Decision-making as a social representation. Organization Science, 6: 62-75.

Lash, S. (1993): Reflexive modernization: The aesthetic dimension. Theory, Culture & Society, 10:1-23.

Lausberg, Heinrich (1963): Elementos de retórica literaria. Madrid: Gredos, 1983.

Lawley, James and Tompkins, Penny (2000). Metaphors in mind: Transformation through symbolic modelling. London: The Developing Company Press. Book Description. What do you do as a therapist, teacher, doctor or manager when your client, student, patient or colleague says "It's like I'm hitting my head against a brick wall," "I've got a knot in my stomach" or "I'm looking for the right path to take"? Metaphors in Mind describes how to give individuals an opportunity to discover how their symbolic perceptions are organised, what needs to happen for these to change, and how they can develop as a result. Based on David Grove's pioneering therapeutic approach and use of Clean Language, Symbolic Modelling is an emergent, systemic and iterative way of facilitating the psychotherapeutic process. This comprehensive book covers the theory of metaphor, self-organising systems, symbolic modelling, the practice of Clean Language, the five-stage therapeutic process, and includes three client transcripts.

Le Guern, Michel (1973): La metáfora y la metonimia. Madrid: Cátedra, 1978.

Lee, A. S. (1991): Integrating positivist and interpretive approaches to organizational research. Organization Science, 2: 342-365.

Lehrer, Adrienne (1990): Polysemy, conventionality, and the structure of the lexicon. Cognitive Linguistics, 1, (2): 207-246.

Levin, Samuel R. (1988): Metaphoric Worlds: Conceptions of a Romantic Nature. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Levin summarizes his view as different from other theories on metaphor in holding (1) that the metaphoric expression is to be taken literally and (2) accepting the epistemological consequences that follow from this literality (p. 4). Typical approaches avoid the literality problem by supposing that the deviant metaphoric language translates into actual literal language which can refer truthfully to the actual world. Instead Levin argues that metaphors create metaphoric worlds in which they have literal and true referents, and this literalness of conception is what is at the core of how poetic metaphor works. He proceeds to attempt to distinguish his theory from those of Lakoff and Johnson, Donald Davidson, and Paul Riceour using (1) and (2) above. He argues that L& J, in treating almost all language as metaphorical, have made a move of questionable validity (p. 11) as many of their examples of metaphors have become entirely lexicalized. Thus Levin argues the fact that we do ordinarily speak of time as a resource does not require us to conceive of time as a resource, as conventionalized metaphors do not cause us to conceive of anything new. By contrast, poetic metaphor does--it causes us to imagine a metaphoric world in which "trees actually do weep." Thus Lakoff and Johnson do not satisfy Levin's assertion that conceptual metaphors are to be taken literally. Similarly, he distinguishes his theory from Davidson's in pointing out that Davidson, while asserting that metaphors are to be taken literally, argues it is their "patent falsity" that instigates a process in the reader to construe them as metaphorical and divine their truth-value by reconstructing the poetic intent. In addition to pointing out problems with the notion of "patent falsity," Levin argues that Davidson's account also robs poetic metaphors of their ability to create metaphoric worlds, as ultimately the truth-value (the meaning) of the metaphor has to do with the hearer's cognitive reconstruction of the poet's has to do with the words relation with the actual world. Poetry, Levin argues, is an attempt to describe literally extraordinary experiences (such as that of sublime beauty). Naturally, ordinary language is not adequate to such experiences, and thus a successful poetic metaphor brings us a conception of a metaphoric world to which the words are literally true.

Levinson, Stephen (1983): Pragmática. Barcelona: Teide, 1989.

Lewin, K. (1947): Frontiers in group dynamics. Human Relations, 1: 5-41.

Liebert, Wolf-Andreas (1992): Metaphernbereiche der deutschen Alltagssprache. Frankfurt: P.Lang. Liebert's work on German language metaphors closely parallels Lakoff and Johnson's theory. An excellent German language introduction to the study of cognitive linguistics.

Linstead, S. (1993)a: From postmodern anthropology to deconstructive ethnography. Human Relations, 46: 97-120.

Linstead, S. (1993)b: Deconstruction in the study of organizations. En J. Hassard & M. Parker, eds.: Postmodernism and organizations. London: Sage: 49-70.

Linstead, S. (1994): Objectivity, reflexivity, and fiction: Humanity, inhumanity, and the science of the social. Human Relations, 47: 1321-1346.

Locke, John (1690). Ensayo sobre el entendimiento humano. México: FCE, 1956.

Loewenberg, Ina (1973): Truth and Consequences of Metaphors. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 6 (1). Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Lundberg, C. C. (1990): Towards mapping the communication targets of organisational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 3: 6-13.

Lyotard, J. F. (1984): The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.

MacCormac, Earl R. (1985): A Cognitive Theory of Metaphor. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. MacCormac has an interesting attack on L& J in chapter 3, essentially claiming their position for his version of a modified Objectivism, while simultaneously refuting it. He claims (1) they have an emergence basic metaphor (as contrasted with his computational metaphor), (2) their refutations of Objectivism are non-refutations since no Objectivist actually holds these positions, (3) their position necessarily collapses into linguistic relativism when they claim all language is metaphorical. Hence, he tries to save the literal/metaphorical distinction--defining the literal as the ordinary use of language. A metaphor uoon his view, is a metaphor more by virtue of its apparent dissimilarities than its innovative similarities. However, he readily admits that his project is caught in a circular paradox between the necessary and inescapable use of basic metaphors in all surface language and his belief in underlying Chomskyian deep structures of syntactical truth relations (which he thinks are ametaphorical).

MacLachlan, G., & Reid, I. (1994): Framing and interpretation. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press.

Manning, P. K. (1979): Metaphors of the field: Varieties of organizational discourse. Administrative science quarterly, 24 (4), 660-671. Social analysis involves both creating and criticizing texts. Styles of discourse, or tropes, are central to textual analysis. Master tropes are metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony. Most social science does not consider the way in which the master tropes shape the writing as well as the gathering of qualitative data. Converting information obtained from field research into written text involves a unique set of problems and ambiguities. The text communicates about observations made and interpreted and also reflects on itself as a written document which the reader must make sensible. Variations in the text produce variations in awareness. Patterned ambiguity of context, mode, or text can introduce surprise or awareness of possible variations in expository writing.

Marsden, R. (1993): The politics of organizational analysis. Organization Studies, 14: 93-124.

Marshak, Robert J. (1993): Managing the metaphors of change. Organizational Dynamnics, 22 (1): 44-56.

Martinich, A., ed. (1990): The Philosophy of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marx, R. D., & Hamilton, E. E. (1991): Beyond skill building: A multiple perspectives view of personnel. Issues and Trends in Business and Economics, 3: 1-4.

Maturana, H. R. (1991): Science and daily life: The ontology of scientific explanations. En F. Steier, ed.: Research and reflexivity. London: Sage: 30-52.

McCourt, W. (1997): Discussion note: Using metaphors to understand and to change organizations: A critique of Gareth Morgan's approach. Organization Studies, 18 (3), 511-522. A critique of Gareth Morgan's approach to metaphor is used as the vehicle for an assessment of the value of metaphoric thinking to understanding and acting in organizations. Metaphor is shown to be an epistemologically valid approach to making sense of organizations, although not at the expense of traditional literal language approaches. Metaphoric thinking is located within the OD model of organizational change, where it functions as a valuable aid to cognitive change, while sharing some of the limitations of OD itself.

Mehan, Hugh and Wills, John. (1988): MEND: A Nurturing Voice in the Nuclear Arms Debate. Social Problems, 4, 363-383. An exploration at tracking a dissonant voice in the nuclear arms debate. Includes a remarkable passage where the effects of being co-opting by using the language and metaphors of the dominant 'technostrategic' voice in the debate is discussed. Effectiveness and legitimacy are contrasted with the pressures for a new and nurturing voice in the debate.

Miall, David S., ed. (1982): Metaphor: Problems and Perspectives. Sussex, England: The Harvester Press. An anthology of mixed--but sometimes quite excellent--value: "On taking metaphor literally," FT. Moore. "Metaphor and Cognitive Structure," Roger Tourangeau. Understanding literary metaphors, Stein Haugom Olsen. "Metaphor as Synergy," Micheal Apter. "Friedrich Nietzsche: The Uses and Abuses of Metaphor," Paul Cantor. "Metaphor in Science," J. Martin and R. Harre. "Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?" Dedre Gentner. "The Metaphorical Plot," Patricia Parker. Articles are generally written clearly and are uncomplicated.

Montaño Hirose, Luis (2000). La noción de organización. Sentido, polisemia y construcción social. Ms. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.

Montaño Hirose, Luis (1998). Metaphors and Organizacional Action. Postmodernity, Language and Self-Regulating Systems. A Mexican Case Study. En Clerg, Stewart et al.: Global Management: Universal Theories and Local Realities. London: Sage.

Montaño Hirose, Luis (1996). Intelligent machines and organisational spaces. A metaphorical approach to ethics. En Artificial Intelligence and Society. Reimpreso en Karamjit S., Gil, ed. Information Society. New Media, Ethics and Postmodernism. London: Springer: 90-103.

Moore, James F. (1993): Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, 71 (3): 75-77.

Morgan, G. (1997): Imaginization: New mindsets for seeing, organizing, and managing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morgan defines "imaginization" as a way of thinking and organizing. Imaginization = imagination + organization. He argues that it is the key managerial skill to help individuals understand and develop their own creative potential and find innovative solutions to difficult problems. Calls for more creative forms of organization and management and shows how we can find new roles in a changing, uncertain world. Includes concrete illustrations and real-world case studies on how the approach can be put into practice.

Morgan, G. (1993) Imaginization: The art of creative management. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Morgan, G. (1990). Paradigm diversity in organizational research. In J. Hassard & D. Pym, eds.: The theory and philosophy of organizations: Critical issues and new perspectives. London: Routledge: 13-29.

Morgan, G. (1988): Riding the waves of change: Developing managerial competencies for a turbulent world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Morgan, G. (1986): Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Existe traducción al español: Imágenes de la organización. México, DF: Alfaomega, 1991. Peter Senge, founder of the Center for Organizational Learning at MIT's Sloan School of Management, experienced an epiphany while meditating one morning back in the fall of 1987. That was the day he first saw the possibilities of a "learning organization" that used "systems thinking" as the primary tenet of a revolutionary management philosophy. He advanced the concept into this primer, originally released in 1990, written for those interested in integrating his philosophy into their corporate culture. The Fifth Discipline has turned many readers into true believers; it remains the ideal introduction to Senge's carefully integrated corporate framework, which is structured around "personal mastery," "mental models," "shared vision," and "team learning." Using ideas that originate in fields from science to spirituality, Senge explains why the learning organization matters, provides an unvarnished summary of his management principals, offers some basic tools for practicing it, and shows what it's like to operate under this system. The book's concepts remain stimulating and relevant as ever. Howard Rothman .

Morgan, G.(1983)a: More on metaphor: Why we cannot control tropes in administrative science. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 601-607.

Morgan, Gareth (1983): Beyond method: Strategies for social research. London: Sage.

Morgan, G. (1980): Paradigms, metaphors, and puzzle solving in organization theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 605-622.

Morgan, Gareth (1989)a: Creative organization theory. London: Sage.

Morgan, Gareth (1989)b: Teaching organization theory: An instructor's manual. London: Sage.

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1873): Sobre verdad y mentira en sentido extramoral. Madrid: Tecnos, 1994.

Nilsen, Kelvin Don and Nilsen, Aleen Pace (Oct 1995). Literary metaphors and other linguistic innovations in computer language. English Journal, 84 (6): 65-71.

Norman, Daniel, comp. (1981): Perspectivas de la ciencia cognitiva. Barcelona: Paidós, 1987.

Norris, C. (1992): Uncritical theory. London: Lawrence and Wishart.

O'Connor, E. S. (1995): Paradoxes of participation: Textual analysis and organizational change. Organization Studies, 16: 769-803.

Ortony, Andrew, ed. (1993): Metaphor and Thought (segunda edición ampliada). Cambridge University Press. Contains everything in the first edition and then some. Excellent article by George Lakoff on the contemporary theory of metaphor.

Ortony, A., ed. (1979): Metaphor and thought. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. One of the dominant presuppositions of our culture is that the description and explanation of physical reality is a respectable and worthwhile enterprise. Science is supposed to be characterized by precision and the absence of ambiguity. Reality could, and should be literally describable. Other uses of language were meaningless for they violated this empiricist criterion of meaning. This work challenges this premise through a collection of essays by various theorists who grapple with the questions, "What are metaphors," and "What are metaphors for?"

Otala, M. (June 1995): The learning organization: Theory into practice. Industry & Higher Education: 157-164. The term "learning organization: is used to designate organizations that have been exceptionally successful in the modern business environment of intense international competition. Such organizations are characterized by their ability to adapt rapidly and flexibly to new international business paradigms. The characteristics of the learning organization are well known, but recent paradigm shifts in the business environment dramatically enhance the fundamental competitive advantages embedded in these long established features. The author sets out the main characteristics of and the necessary conditions for effective organizational learning and outlines the competitive advantages to be gained.

Palmer, H., & Brown, P. B. (1998): The enneagram advantage: Putting the 9 personality types to work in the office. New York: Harmony Books. Discusses the concept of the enneagram in terms of organizational issues and office politics. Like other typing systems, the Enneagram is structured to show characteristics that people with the same profile share in common, with a focus on high-achieving people. In business organizations, the Enneagram advantage lies in knowing how coworkers think, feel, and sort the information that applies to their jobs. No one type is better than another, but each brings its own lens of perception to work and each type approaches the job differently.

Palmer, Ian & Dunford, Richard (Jul 1996). Conflicting uses of metaphors: Reconceptualizing their use in the field of organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 21 (3): 691-717.

Parente, Diego (2000). La metáfora como instrumento cognitivo. Una crítica de la concepción experiencialista de G. Lakoff y M. Jonson. Universidad Nacional de Mar de Plata. Facultad de Humanidades. Tesina de licenciatura Disponible en Internet:

Pariente, José Luis (Noviembre 2000).Te ven o no te ven. ¿Es esa la cuestión? Algunas reflexiones acerca de la videoconferencia en la educación superior. Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana: Administración y Organizaciones, 3 (5): 193-200.

Pariente, José Luis (2000). Teoría de las organizaciones. Un enfoque de metáforas (2ª ed.). México, DF: Miguel Ángel Porrúa / COTACYT, 2002.

Parker, M. (1992): Post-modern organizations or postmodem organizations or postmodern organization theory? Organization Studies, 13: 1-17.

Perelman, Chaim (1977): L’Empire Rhétorique. Paris: Vrin, 1977.

Perelman, Chaim (1969). Analogie et métaphore en science, poésie et philosophie", Revue International de Philosophie, 23, année 87, 1969, fasc. 1.

Perrow, Charles. (1984): Normal Accidents: Living with high risk technologies. New York: Basic Books. This incredible book examines how in highly complex systems such as a nuclear reactor or a research lab, the interaction of multiple component failures can cause normal (or system) accident, which can be disaster when the systems are not just complex and interactive but tightly coupled Tight coupling is characteristic of systems like the nuclear power plant or air traffic without much slack or alternative ways of fixing something--while the research lab without production pressures, deadlines and schedules is loosely coupled. Perrow's book is extraordinarily rich in detailed examples of accidents in the nuclear power industry, the petrochecmical industry, the airplane and air traffic industry, ship accidents, modifying the ecosystem (dams, quakes, lakes, and mines), the space program, biotechnology and the nuclear weapons industries. This is an example of the best sort of empirical work where the theory simply leaps forward from the detailed presentation of data. Then, in summing up his work, Perrow uses his analysis to pose serious questions not just about the social benefits of high-risk technologies, but about the rationality of risk assessment. Is it right to assess risk in terms of bare numbers and statistics (as the professional risk analysts often do), or does the fact that ordinary people consistently and reliably assess risk differently than the experts suggest that the experts might be overlooking something? This is the old debate about the usefulness of expert knowledge from Plato's Protagoras--are we to place blind faith in the expert possessor of the expert knowledge? Can an expert be wrong? Much of the evidence from cognitive psychology--and some of the best work on risk assessment (such as the Slovic and Fischhoff work Perrow cites)--recognizes that ordinary people reason differently than experts, and the difference is reliable, numerically meaureable and predictable, and perhaps explainable. But it is explainable only in terms which do not lend themselves easily to numbers. Instead, they are explainable only in terms of a thick description (cfi. Geertz) as opposed to the thin quantitative descriptions of the experts. This suggests to Perrow and myself that there is more than one kind of rational assessment--the absolute and objective rationality of the experts, achieved by standing outside the problem, a bounded (or limited) rationality which, after admitting our cognitive abilities are limited, suggests that the experts' numbers need to be supplemented with appropriate heuristics to overcome these deficiencies, and social or cultural rationality which takes into account the messy and hard to describe logic of our ordinary reasoning and the limits on our cognitive abilities (cf. pp. 316- 323). The foirmer two types, Perrow suggests, are thin rationalities--only the third is a thick rationality.

Perry, E. L., Davis-Blake, A., & Kulik, C. T. (1994): Explaining gender-based selection decisions: A synthesis of contextual and cognitive approaches. Academy of Management Review, 19: 786-820.

Peters, T. (1992): Liberation management: Necessary disorganization for the nanosecond nineties. New York: Knopf.

Pfeffer, J. (1993): Barriers to the advance of organizational science: Paradigm development as a dependent variable. Academy of Management Review, 18: 599-620.

Pinder, Craig C., and V. Warren Bourgeois (1982): Controlling tropes in administrative science. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27: 241-252.

Plant, R. (1987): Managing change and making it stick. England: Gower.

Platón: República, traducción de J.M. Pabón y M. Fernández Galiano. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Políticos, 1969.

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Porras, Jerry I., and Robert C. Silvers (1991): Organization development and transformation'. Annual Review of Psychology, 42: 51-78.

Pottier, Bernard (1992): Semántica General. Madrid: Editorial Gredos. (Versión española de Francisco Díaz Montesinos. Primera Edición, 1992. Presses Universitaires de France.)

Powell, Mava Jo. (1995): Figurative extension in English verbal idioms of visual perception. Lacus Forum, 21: 304-312.

Putnam, L. L., Phillips, N., & Chapman, P. (1996): Metaphors of communication and organization. In S. R. Clegg, C. Hardy, & W. R. Nord, eds.: Handbook of organization studies Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 375-408. Provides a review of organizational communication literature, casting a broad stroke across the canvas of this literature to highlight studies that illustrate various metaphors, including the conduit metaphor, the lens metaphor, the linkage metaphor, and the symbol metaphor.

Quine, Willard van Orman (1969): La relatividad ontológica y otros ensayos. Madrid: Tecnos, 1974.

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Reddy, Michael (1979): The Conduit Metaphor. En A. Ortony, ed.: Metaphor and Thought (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Richards, Ivor (1936): The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rickards, Tudor (1999): Creativity and the Management of Change. Blackwell Publishers. Existe traducción al español: La creatividad y la administración del cambio. México, DF: Oxford, 2001. Reviewer: Gerry Stern, Editor, Stern's Management Review & CyberSpace SourceFinder from Culver City, CA, USA. According to the author, the premise of the book is 'what they teach at business school' is a base from which you have to develop creative insights to deal with specific tasks. The received wisdom gives insight into the nature of the organizational box; the challenge is to go beyond its boundaries. But skills must be developed to take transcend conventional views.  Noting that the study of creativity is one of the most silenced voices in MBA courses, the author begins with an exploration of creativity; this key chapter's subtitle is "the slumbering giant of organizational studies." From there Rickards moves on to a wide spectrum of subjects: marketing and strategy; decision-making; culture and climate; leadership and managerialism; and the management of change. The final two chapters concern postmodernism and economics (ranging from Adam Smith to a new economic paradigm). The book successfully places the study of organization and the traditional business disciplines into a dynamic perspective at the core of which is creativity. The book itself is creative, filled with absorbing insights, and presents a stimulating, personal journey that delves beneath the surface features of the organizational landscape. Thoughtful and filled with meaningful content, this book is a true find for the adventurous mind.

Ricoeur, Paul (1979): The metaphorical process as cognition, imagination, and feeling. En Sheldon Sacks, ed.: On Metaphor. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Ricoeur, Paul (1975): La metáfora viva. Buenos Aires: Megápolis, 1977.

Rivano Fischer, Emilio (1994): Ampliaciones esquemáticas de la preposición 'a'. Ms. Universidad de Concepción, Chile.

Rivano Fischer, Emilio (1991): Topology and Dynamics of Interactions: with special reference to Spanish and Mapudungu. Lund: Lund University Press.

Rivano Fischer, Emilio (1989): Persons, interactions, proximity, and metaphorical grammaticalization in Mapudungu". Working Papers 35. Lund: Lunds Universitet. Allmän Språkvetenskap.

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Rohrer, Tim (1995): The Cognitive Science of Metaphor from philosophy to neuropsychology. Internet: http://www.uoregon/metaphor.

Rohrer, Tim. (1995): Metaphor and Neuropsychology. Interent:

Rohrer, Tim. (1995): The Metaphorical Logic of (Political) Rape: The New Wor(l)d Order. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 10: 115-137. The 1991 Persian Gulf War dramatically punctuated the importance of metaphor to our everyday life and our reasoning about politics. Did the Gulf situation more closely resemble Vietnam or World War II? One's choice of metaphor yielded different practical inferences about what the United States and the world community ought to do in response to the Iraqi invasion. Using the Public Papers of the President series I investigate the metaphors used by former U.S. President George Bush to conceptualize the political situation in the Persian Gulf during the pre-war period of August 1990 through January 1991. I argue the analogical reasoning behind the "new world order" rests on a complex system of metaphors and on Bush's assertion that the expression "the rape of Kuwait" is literal (non-metaphorical) language. The practical outcome of accepting Bush's metaphors and his metaphorically projected inferences was the 1991 war in the Persian Gulf.

Rohrer, Tim. (1991): To Plow the Sea: Metaphors for Regional Peace in Latin America. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 6: 163-181. A cross-cultural investigation into the political metaphors used in accounts of three peacemaking attempts in Central and Latin America from 1967 to 1987. Contrasts metaphors used by Spanish and English speakers to characterize international politics.

Rorty, Richard (1992): Ensayos sobre Heidegger y otros pensadores contemporáneos. Barcelona: Paidós, 1993.

Rorty, Richard (1991): Objetividad, relativismo y verdad. Barcelona: Paidós, 1996.

Rorty, Richard (1989): Contigencia, ironía y solidaridad, Barcelona: Paidós, 1991.

Rorty, Richard (1980): Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Rorty, Richard (1979): La filosofía y el espejo de la naturaleza. Madrid: Cátedra, 1983.

Rosa, Nicolás (1978): Léxico de lingüística y semiología. Buenos Aires: CEAL, 1991.

Rosch, Eleanor (1973)a: Natural Categories. En Cognitive Psychology, 4:328-50.

Rosch, Eleanor (1973)b: On the internal structure of perceptual and semantic categories. En T.E. Moore, ed.: Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language. N.Y: Academic Press.

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Rosch, Eleanor (1977): Human categorization. En N. Warren, ed.: Studies in Cross-Cultural Psychology. London:Academic Press.

Rosch, Eleanor (1975): Univerals and cultural specifics in human categorization. En R. Brislin, ed.: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Learning. N.Y: Halstead Press.

Rosenblatt, Paul C. (1994): Metaphors of Family Systems Theory: Toward new constructions. New York: Guilford Publications. This is an attempt to use Lakoff and Johnson (1980) to analyse the metaphors of family counseling. It is a practical work with real focus on using metaphors to reconstruct a patient's understanding of the family in therapy, as well as a fairly broad survey of the types of metaphors already in use in the counseling literature.

Rovatti, Pier Aldo (1988): Como la luz tenue: Metáfora y saber. Barcelona: Gedisa, 1990.

Sackmann, S. (1989): The role of metaphors in organization transformation. Human relations, 42 (6): 463-485. Metaphors, if carefully chosen, may be a useful tool in the transformation process of an organization. Metaphors are powerful because 1. they can trigger a perceptual shift, 2. they can succinctly transmit a large amount of information simultaneously at a cognitive, behavioral, and emotional level, and 3. they can render vague and abstract ideas concrete, provide a vivid image, and be remembered easily. There are 2 basic metaphors, targeted and adaptive. Targeted metaphors are appropriate only if the envisioned future is known and can be determined. Adaptive metaphors are appropriate when goals cannot be clearly specified. Also, adaptive metaphors imply an evolving nature that allows testing, exploring, searching, and learning. In a case study, the use of multiple and adaptive metaphors allowed a wide range of action and substantiated the argument that metaphors are useful in the transformation process of organizations.

Sacks, S., ed. (1981): On Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Nine essays and six "afterthoughts" on metaphor. The volume began as lectures or responses to lectures at a 1978 University of Chicago symposium entitled "Metaphor: The Conceptual Leap." The essays discuss the newly found respectability of metaphor; focus on how to understand the relation of "poetic" metaphors to metaphors in ordinary speech, and how to incorporate an account of metaphor into more general theories of language or meaning. Not so much on metaphor in organizational theory as metaphor as an epistemology, a way of "knowing" or understanding reality.

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Sandelands, L., & Srivatsan. V. (1993): The problem of experience in the study of organizations. Organization Studies, 14: 1-22.

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Searle, John (1979): Metaphor. En Andrew Ortony, ed.: Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press.

Senge, Peter (1999): The Dance of Change: The Challenges to Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations. NY: Doubleday Existe traducción al español: La danza del cambio. México, DF: Norma, 2000. Since its release in 1990, Peter M. Senge's bestselling The Fifth Discipline has converted readers to its innovative business principles of the "learning organization," personal mastery, and systems thinking. Published nearly a decade later, Dance of Change provides a formidable response to businesspeople wondering how to make his programs stick. He outlines potential obstacles (such as initiating transformation, personal fear and anxiety, and measuring the unmeasurable) and proposes ways to turn these obstacles into sources of improvement. Senge--with considerable help from the team who worked on the follow-up development manual, The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook--presents an insider's account of long-term maintenance efforts at General Electric, Harley-Davidson, the U.S. Army, and others who are learning organization, along with experience-based suggestions and exercises for individuals and teams. "We are seeking to understand how people nurture the reinforcing growth processes that naturally enable an organization to evolve and change," Senge explains, "and how they tend to the limiting processes that can impede or stop that growth." --.. Howard Rothman.

Senge, Peter (1990): The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. NY: Currency/Doubleday. Existe traducción al español: La quinta disciplina. El arte y la práctica de la organización abierta al aprendizaje. Barcelona: Granica, 1992. Peter Senge, founder of the Center for Organizational Learning at MIT's Sloan School of Management, experienced an epiphany while meditating one morning back in the fall of 1987. That was the day he first saw the possibilities of a "learning organization" that used "systems thinking" as the primary tenet of a revolutionary management philosophy. He advanced the concept into this primer, originally released in 1990, written for those interested in integrating his philosophy into their corporate culture. The Fifth Discipline has turned many readers into true believers; it remains the ideal introduction to Senge's carefully integrated corporate framework, which is structured around "personal mastery," "mental models," "shared vision," and "team learning." Using ideas that originate in fields from science to spirituality, Senge explains why the learning organization matters, provides an unvarnished summary of his management principals, offers some basic tools for practicing it, and shows what it's like to operate under this system. The book's concepts remain stimulating and relevant as ever. Howard Rothman

Sfard, A. (1998): On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27 (2): 4-13. This article is a sequel to the conversation on learning initiated by the editors of Educational Researcher in volume 25, number 4. The author's first aim is to elicit the metaphors for learning that guide our work as learners, teachers, and researchers. Two such metaphors are identified: the acquisition metaphor and the participation metaphor. Subsequently, their entailments are discussed and evaluated. Although some of the implications are deemed desirable and others are regarded as harmful, the article neither speaks against a particular metaphor nor tries to make a case for the other. Rather, these interpretations and applications of the metaphors undergo critical evaluation. In the end, the question of theoretical unification of the research on learning is addressed, wherein the purpose is to show how too great a devotion to one particular metaphor can lead to theoretical distortions and to undesirable practices.

Shrivastava, P., & Schneider, S. (19849: Organizational frames of reference. Human Relations, 37: 795-809.

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Smircich, L., & Stubbart, C. (1985): Strategic management in an enacted world. Academy of Management Review,10: 724-736.

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Sweetser, Eve. (1990). From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. New York: Cambridge University Press. Sweetser has important philosophical moves in two respects: First, she has a beautiful analysis of how the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is refuted by work on color perception and translates this to observing that the directionality of metaphor is largely from the physical to the mental (pp. 6-7). Second, she has analyses of modality, conjunction and conditionality which suggest that necessity, probability, causality, and the like are based on a projection from spatio-temporal force dynamics. She suggests that the conjunctions and, or and but are ordered iconically to a various spatio-temporal processes, although the ordering changes when changing between different linguistic domains (p.111). The book unfortunately does not make much more than a passing speculation to follow up Fauconnier's 1985 idea that when we change linguistic domains (ie from the root to the epistemic to the speech act) we are imagining different cognitive worlds to which are grammar refers.

Sweetser, Eve (1989): From Etymology to Pragmatics: The Mind-as-Body Metaphor in Semantic Structure and Semantic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Versión revisada de su Semantic Structure and Semantic Change: a Cognitive Linguistic Study of Modality, Perception, Speech Acts and Logical Relations. Universidad de California, Berkeley:Tesis Doctoral)

Talmy, Leonard (1985): Force dynamics in language and thought. En Parasession on Causatives an Agentivity. Chicago Linguistic Society: 21st Regional Meeting. University of Chicago.

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Tinker, Tony (1986): Metaphor or reification: Are radical humanists really libertarian anarchists?' Journal of Management Studies, 23 (4): 363-384.

Todorov, Tzvetan (1977): Teorías del símbolo. Caracas: Monte Avila, 1991.

Todorov, Tzvetan y Ducrot, Oswald (1972): Diccionario Enciclopédico de las Ciencias del Lenguaje. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 1976.

Townley, B. (1993): Foucault, power/knowledge, and its relevance for human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 18: 518-545.

Tsoukas, H. (19939: Organizations as soap bubbles: An evolutionary perspective on organization design. Systems Practice, 6: 501-515.

Tsoukas. H. (992): Postmodernism, reflexive rationalism and organizational studies: A reply to Martin Parker. Organization Studies, 13: 643-649.

Tsoukas, H. (1991): The missing link: A transformational view of metaphors in organizational science. Academy of management review, 16 (3): 566-585. The different knowledge functions of metaphors in lay and scientific discourses are outlined, and a methodology for the development of metaphors to yield deeper organizational scientific knowledge is proposed. It is argued that the traditional dichotomy between metaphorical and literal languages has led to either an overemphasis or a depreciation of the role of metaphors in organizational science. This dichotomy is unnecessary and unproductive because metaphorical language and literal language are different but not incompatible. Drawing on Beer's (1984) suggestions about scientific modeling, a transformational view of metaphors is advanced that attempts to outline a methodology for the development of metaphorical insights to yield literal identities.

Turbayne, T. (1962): The Myth of Metaphor. Yale: Yale University Press.

Turk, Klaus (1988): Review of Images of organization . Organization Studies, 9 (1): 113-115.

Turner, Mark (1992): Design for a Theory of Meaning. En W. Overton y D. Palermo, eds.: The Nature and Ontogenesis of Meaning, Erlbaum, 1994.

Turner, Mark. (1991). Reading Minds: the study of English in the age of cognitive science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Turner argues for a radical reconception of the study of English literature using methods borrowed from cognitive linguistics. Instead of concentrating on giving ever more novel readings of literature, he offers an account in which he tries to make sense of the common aspects of literary works. In doing so, he makes an important point about originality: the author's originality--to whatever extent it is present, makes use of a vast unoriginal background. By concentrating on the unoriginal apparatus--the metaphors and metonymies that are the "stock-in-trade" of the author-- he hopes offer a new paradigm to which future work in the English profession can look. The three chapters on the poetry of connections (and especially ythe third) are the real gems in this book. His analysis of XYZ metaphors such as "money is the root of all evil" and "language is fossil poetry" is important work in metaphor theory. The tenth chapter on the inadequacy of cultural literacy lists like E.D. Hirsch's Dictionary is an excellent example of drawing out some of the social examples of metaphor theory.

Turner, Mark. (1990): Aspects of the Invariance Hypothesis. Cognitive Linguistics, 1 (2): 247-255. Turner asks what constrains a metaphoric mapping? The IH as stated by Lakoff is simply put too strongly--he rephrases the Invariance Hypothesis as to transfer only that part of the source's topology which does not violate the target's topology and as much of it as possible.

Turner, Mark (1987): Death is the mother of beauty: mind, metaphor, criticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Van Maanen. J. (1995): Style as theory. Organization Science, 6: 133-143.

Vianu, Tudor (1957): Los problemas de la metáfora. Buenos Aires: EUDEBA, 1967.

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von Humboldt, William (1812): Cuatro ensayos sobre España y América. Buenos Aires: Espasa-Calpe, 1951.

Voss, James F, Joel Kennet, Jennifer Wiley and Tonya Y. E. Schooler (1992): Experts at Debate: The Use of Metaphor in the U.S. Senate Debate on the Gulf Crisis. J. of Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 7 (3 & 4): 197-214. A content analysis of the Senate debate over U.S. involvement in the Gulf. Unfortunately the analysis excluded dead metaphors and treated metaphor as figurative instead of constitutive, so the article does not penetrate too deeply into the inferential structure and topological coherencies of metaphoric systems. Nonetheless, the data set is impressive.

Wagner, Jane. (1986): The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in The Universe. New York: Harper and Row.

Watzlawick, Paul, comp. (1981): La realidad inventada: ¿Cómo sabemos lo que creemos saber?. Buenos Aires: Gedisa, 1989.

Weick, Karl E. (1989): Theory construction as disciplined imagination. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4): 516-531.

Weitzenfeld, Julian, Tom Reidl, Charles Chubb & Jared Freeman. (1992): The Use of Cross- Domain Language by Expert Software Developers. J. of Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 7 (3 & 4): 185-195. A rather straightforward but interesting first investigation into the language used to characterize computer systems by their programmers. I see much room for follow-up on the role these metaphors play in their debugging process, not to mention their generative role in creating operating systems, word-processing systems and the like.

Wertsch, James V. (1987): Modes of Discourse in the Nuclear Arms Debate. Current Research on Peace and Violence, 10 (2-3): 102-112. Wertsch's concern is to develop a taxonomy of modes of discourse in the nuclear arms debate. Beginning from Dyson's warrior/victim distinction, he posits two dimensions of discourse: scope of identification and form of legitimation. The scope of identification is whether one privileges arguments which assume that all humans "are in this together" when it comes to the nuclear predicament (a "universal" perspective) or priviliges arguments where it is assumed that the fundamental interest of one social group, such as a nation, can be separated from others (a "particularistic" perspective). The form of legitimation is whether one priviliges arguments which are "decontextualized" abstractions from any concrete situation and is characterized by the use of formal logic and an Objectivist view of rationality, or privileges "contextualized" modes of expression where the analysis of highly concrete factors are highlighted, particularly their emotional aspects. He gives well-known examples of works which fit the intersections formed by each of these dimensions, but suggests that it is the particularistic, decontextualized discourse which dominates official technostrategic discourse. He concludes by tracing out how the bias toward this mode of discourse as that assumed by any "rational" actor led Carter into a political blunder re the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Whitley, R. (1992): The social construction of organizations and markets: The comparative analysis of business recipes. En M. Reed & M. Hughes, eds.: Rethinking organization: New directions in organization theory and analysis. London: Sage: 120-143.

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Wittgenstein, Ludvig (1958): Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Existe traducción al español: Investigaciones Filosóficas, Barcelona: Crítica, 1988.

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Wolf, Hans-Georg. (1994). A Folk Model of the Internal Self in Light of the Contemporary View of Metaphor - The Self as Subject and Object, Frankfurt: P.Lang. Based on Lakoff and Johnson's theory of metaphor, the author analyzes and criticizes the Western model of the "Internal Self," constituted by a system of not unifiable but reifying metaphors. Both experts (psychologists, philosophers, etc.) and lay persons draw upon this model when they refer to the self. The reification of the self into separate entities leads to contradictions in the futile attempt to bridge the subject-object gap. The work points to social constructionism as an alternative language game that may help us overcome the confusions intrinsic to our present conceptualization of the self. --abstract submitted by author.

Yanow, Dvora (1992). Supermarkets and culture clash: The epistemological role of metaphors in administration practice. American Review of Public Administration, 22 (2): 89-109.


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